Month: December 2021 (Page 2 of 7)

Australian Temperate Zone Vegetables

Ive been having more requests on setting up gardens and what to grow than bushcraft techniques lately, only a few more posts on homesteading and back to bushcraft. I dont mind doing research for people its something Im good at. Maybe I should have started a gardening Blog.

Amaranth, Asparagus Pea, Beans / Climbing & Bush, Beetroot, Broccoli, Brussels Sprouts, Burdock, Carrots, Chives, Coriander, Cucumber, Huauzontle, Kohlrabi, Leeks, Lettuce, Malabar Greens, Mustard Greens, Okra, Oregano, Parsley, Parsnip, Pumpkin, Radish, Rocket, Rosella, Silverbeet, Squash, Sunflower, Sweet Corn, Turnips / Swedes, Warrigal Greens, NZ Spinach

Amaranth, Asparagus Pea, Beetroot, Broccoli, Brussels Sprouts, Burdock, Cabbage (tight-headed), Carrots, Chives, Coriander, Cucumber, Endive, Florence Fennel, Huauzontle, Jerusalem Artichoke, Kale, Collards, Kohlrabi, Lettuce, Long Yam, Luffa, Malabar Greens, Mangle-wurzel, Mizuna, Mustard Greens, Okra, Onion, Oregano, Pak Choy, Bok Choy etc, Parsley, Parsnip, Peas/Snow Peas, Potatoes, Pumpkin, Quinoa, Radish, Rocket, Rockmelon, Rosella, Salsify, Shallots, Silverbeet, Spring Onions, Spinach, Squash, Sunflower, Sweet Corn, Sweet Potato, Tomatoes, Turnips / Swedes, Warrigal Greens, NZ Spinach, Watermelon, Water Chestnut, Zucchini

Amaranth, Beetroot, Broad Beans, Broccoli, Brussels Sprouts, Burdock, Cabbage (loose-headed), Cabbage (tight-headed), Carrots, Cauliflower, Chives, Coriander, Endive, Florence Fennel, Kale, Collards, Kohlrabi, Leeks, Lettuce, Malabar Greens, Mizuna, Mustard Greens, Onion, Oregano, Pak Choy, Bok Choy etc, Parsley, Parsnip, Radish, Rocket, Rockmelon, Rosella, Salsify, Shallots, Silverbeet, Spinach, Turnips / Swedes

Beetroot, Broad Beans, Broccoli, Brussels Sprouts, Burdock, Cabbage (loose-headed), Cabbage (tight-headed), Carrots, Cauliflower, Chives, Endive, Garlic, Huauzontle, Jerusalem Artichoke, Kale, Collards, Kohlrabi, Leeks, Lettuce, Mangle-wurzel, Mizuna, Mustard Greens, Onion, Oregano, Pak Choy, Bok Choy etc, Parsley, Peas/Snow Peas, Radish, Rocket, Salsify, Shallots, Silverbeet, Spinach, Turnips / Swedes

Broad Beans, Burdock, Cabbage (loose-headed), Cabbage (tight-headed), Carrots, Chicory, Chives, Endive, Garlic, Huauzontle, Jerusalem Artichoke, Kohlrabi, Lettuce, Mangle-wurzel, Mizuna, Mustard Greens, Oregano, Pak Choy, Bok Choy etc, Parsley, Peas/Snow Peas, Radish, Rocket, Salsify, Shallots, Silverbeet, Spinach, Turnips / Swedes

Broad Beans, Cabbage (loose-headed), Cabbage (tight-headed), Chicory, Endive, Garlic, Jerusalem Artichoke, Lettuce, Onion, Peas/Snow Peas, Radish, Shallots

Broad Beans, Cabbage (loose-headed), Cabbage (tight-headed), Chicory, Endive, Garlic, Jerusalem Artichoke, Kohlrabi, Lettuce, Mustard Greens, Onion, Parsnip, Peas/Snow Peas, Radish, Shallots

Artichoke (Globe), Asparagus, Beetroot, Cabbage (loose-headed), Cabbage (tight-headed), Chicory, Endive, Garlic, Jerusalem Artichoke, Kohlrabi, Leeks, Lettuce, Mustard Greens, Onion, Parsnip, Peas/Snow Peas, Potatoes, Radish, Shallots, Spinach, Spring Onions, Tomatoes, Watermelon

Amaranth, Artichoke (Globe), Asparagus, Asparagus Pea, Basil, Beans / Climbing & Bush, Beetroot, Broccoli, Burdock, Cabbage (loose-headed), Cabbage (tight-headed), Capsicum, Carrots, Celeriac, Celery, Chicory, Chilli, Chives, Coriander, Cucumber, Eggplant, Endive, Florence Fennel, Garlic, Jerusalem Artichoke, Kale, Collards, Kohlrabi, Leeks, Lettuce, Malabar Greens, Mangle-wurzel, Mizuna, Mustard Greens, Oregano, Pak Choy, Bok Choy etc, Parsley, Parsnip, Peas/Snow Peas, Potatoes, Pumpkin, Radish, Rocket, Rockmelon, Salsify, Shallots, Silverbeet, Spinach, Tomatoes, Turnips / Swedes, Watermelon, Zucchini

Amaranth, Artichoke (Globe), Asparagus, Asparagus Pea, Basil, Beans / Climbing & Bush, Beetroot, Broccoli, Burdock, Cabbage (loose-headed), Cabbage (tight-headed),, Capsicum, Carrots, Chicory, Chilli, Chives, Coriander, Cucumber, Eggplant, Florence Fennel, Garlic, Kale, Collards, Kohlrabi, Leeks, Lettuce, Luffa, Malabar Greens, Mangle-wurzel, Mizuna, Mustard Greens, Okra, Oregano, Pak Choy, Bok Choy etc, Parsley, Parsnip, Potatoes, Pumpkin, Quinoa, Radish, Rocket, Rockmelon, Rosella, Salsify, Silverbeet, Spring Onions, Squash, Sunflower, Sweet Corn, Tomatoes, Turnips / Swedes, Warrigal Greens, NZ Spinach, Watermelon, Water Chestnut, Zucchini

Amaranth, Artichoke (Globe), Asparagus, Asparagus Pea, Basil, Beans / Climbing & Bush, Beetroot, Broccoli, Burdock, Cabbage (loose-headed), Capsicum, Carrots, Celeriac, Celery, Chicory, Chilli, Chives, Coriander, Cucumber, Eggplant, Kale, Collards, Kohlrabi, Leeks, Lettuce, Long Yam, Luffa, Malabar Greens, Mangle-wurzel, Mizuna, MustardGreens, Okra, Oregano, Parsley, Parsnip, Potatoes, Pumpkin, Quinoa, Radish, Rocket, Rockmelon, Rosella, Salsify, Silverbeet, Squash, Sunflower, Sweet Corn, Tomatoes, Turnips / Swedes, Warrigal Greens, NZ Spinach, Watermelon, Zucchini

Amaranth, Asparagus Pea, Basil, Beans / Climbing & Bush, Beetroot, Broccoli, Brussels Sprouts, Burdock, Cabbage (tight-headed), Capsicum, Carrots, Chicory, Chilli, Chives, Coriander, Cucumber, Eggplant, Kohlrabi, Leeks, Lettuce, Luffa, Malabar Greens, Mizuna, Mustard Greens, Okra, Oregano, Parsley, Parsnip, Peas/Snow Peas, Potatoes, Pumpkin, Quinoa, Radish, Rocket, Rockmelon, Rosella, Salsify, Silverbeet, Squash, Sunflower, Sweet Corn, Tomatoes, Turnips / Swedes, Warrigal Greens, NZ Spinach, Watermelon, Zucchini

Kali Apex Knife fighter training

Disclaimer; Dont get your panties in a twist

I know its a bushcraft blog but I also train in several martial arts, archery, shooting,fishing, I build stuff etc etc. Im disabled, not dead and I make the most out of the time I have. I may start a martial art section but I dont write that much about martial arts to make it worth while. So Im placing this under the prep section.

Id like to recommend the online training at the Kali Center. With covid Ive been trying to keep up with my training especially with a low immune system so online seems the go. There arent a lot of online training courses that I can recommend and Ive done many but this one i can can goes into a lot of depth and worth looking at.

I would wait till he runs specials to get the best price. Ive trained primarily in Amok as a knife skill. The kali Ive trained in made knife work look like Tai Chi. Ive found one flaw in most martial arts is that no one cross trains. MMA takes bits and pieces but they dont train in the individual martial art to se what they are trying to teach.

There are only so many ways of punching or kicking, its the intent or mindset or energy that training in each style allows you to obtain. So I cross train in knife fighting. I have my primary style of Amok but also look at Floro, Traditional Apache, Systema, Bowie knives, Libre etc.

While traveling and studying theres only so much you can do so this is my way to keep up with blade work. The past few years Ive trained mainly in weaponry, its easier when you have injuries that trying to do high kicks and walking away with bruises covering your body, which I do anyway, as I mainly pick combative styles to train in. I have 65% lung capacity if I dont walk away after a session feeling like Ive been run over by a truck then I dont see the sense in training in that style.

I luv Amok. It took me 5 years of training before I had permission to get an Amok tattoo. I told Tom Sotis Id get it in my armpit so he knew I was serious but I still cross train. Sticks and Jo are a great way to keep up my rehab as well. A great passively way of working injuries and building up damaged tissue.

As a side note I didnt get a tattoo to say Ive trained in blades. I had lost a over decade of my life to sickness and probably tried to make up for it too fast. The guys in Amok and Systema took me in and made it easier for me to re-adjust to a normal life around people. I got the tattoo to honor them. I may write about it sometime.

Survival Gardening Part 5

Homemade Pest Control

Scale and Mealybugs: Make an oil preparation that suffocates them by mixing four tablespoons of dish washing liquid into one cup of vegetable oil. Mix one part of that mixture to about twenty parts of water, put it in your sprayer and spray the affected plants.

Aphids, Caterpillars and Other Insects: Add two tablespoons of soap flakes to one litre of water and stir thoroughly until completely dissolved (this is quicker in warm water). There is no need to dilute this further, just spray it on as is.

Black Spot Fungicide: In Queensland, Black Spot’s a major problem with roses, but this fungicide mixture works miracles. Add three teaspoons of bicarb soda to one litre of water. Don’t get carried away with the bicarb soda because if you make it too strong, it’ll cause all sorts of problems. Add a few drops of either dishwashing liquid, or fish emulsion to help the solution adhere to the leaf more effectively.

Fungicide: Mix one level teaspoon of bicarb soda into one litre of water. Add one litre of skim milk and a pinch of Condy’s Crystals which you can get from a produce agent (someone that supplies to horse owners). Shake thoroughly.

Grasshopper, Caterpillar and Possum Deterrent: Mix a cup of molasses into one litre of water and spray it over new foliage.

Nematodes: Add half a litre of molasses to two litres of water and spread over one and a half square metres of affected garden area.

All-round Insecticide: Chop four large onions, two cloves of garlic, and four hot chillies. Mix them together and cover with warm, soapy water and leave it to stand overnight. Strain off that liquid and add it to five litres of water to create an all-round insecticide.

Pesticide: Crush a whole bulb of garlic and cover with vegetable oil. After two days, strain off the liquid, add a couple of drops of dishwashing liquid and use one millilitre of concentrate to one litre of water.

Herbicide: Add a cup of common salt to a litre of vinegar. After it’s dissolved, brush it directly onto weeds. Remember, it’s not a selective weed killer. It’ll kill anything it touches so be very careful how you use it.

Predator Attractor: Predators that prey on pests are great things to have in the garden. Lacewings are particularly desirable because they consume aphids and many other pests. To encourage them into your garden, dissolve one teaspoon of a yeast based sandwich spread in water and spray it all over the plants.

Survival Gardening Part 4

Crop Rotation

Growing the same vegetables in the same spot each year can lead to problems. Soil living pests and diseases, which thrive on that particular crop, can build up in the soil to epidemic levels. Vegetables also have various mineral needs and continuous cropping of one particular crop can lead to the levels of nutrients in the soil becoming unbalanced. To prevent the build up of pests and diseases in the soil and to help the vegetables in their nutrient needs, your crops need to be rotated. It is a fact that vegetables prefer to be grown in soil that has been used for a different crop previously than in soil that has been used for one of their own kind.

Vegetables have various soil and mineral needs. These needs can be broken down into 3 categories of each.

Nutrients – Heavy Feeders Medium Feeders Light Feeders

Soil – Acid Neutral Alkaline

By grouping together vegetable plants that have the same ‘needs’ you will be able to manage the soil better and by splitting your growing area into separate areas or beds, you can condition the soil to suit each grouping. For instance, Sweet Corn is a very heavy feeder; it likes a neutral to acid soil, a lot of nutrients and plenty of moisture. By digging in plenty of manure or compost it will help to feed the plant and retain the moisture for the plant to use. On the other hand Brassicas prefer to be grown in a more alkaline soil. It is obvious that the two will not grow in the same soil conditions, therefore one of them will suffer and give poor results. By rotating the vegetables the soil can be brought into a condition to suit both their needs.

The 3 Bed System

The most common system used is the ‘3 Bed’ rotation system. This name is slightly confusing though as the system actually uses 4 beds.

Basically you are divide the growing area into four sections or beds. They would then be treated as follows: –

The First Year.

Bed ‘A’

Dig over as normal and feed with a general fertiliser such as Bonemeal, or, if you want to be organic, Blood, Fish and Bone. You would then plant all the root crops in this bed. This includes Beetroot, Carrots, Jerusalem Artichokes, Parsnips, Salsify, Scorzonera.

Bed ‘B’

Dig over as normal and then apply a general fertiliser as above. Depending on the pH of the soil, which you are advised to check (see soil pH section) you would apply the necessary amount of lime. In this bed you would plant all your Brassicas which include Cabbages, Broccoli, Cauliflowers, Brussels Sprouts, Kale, Radish, Swede, Turnips, Kohl Rabi.

Bed ‘C’

Dig as much manure or compost as you can into this bed over the winter or very early spring. Approximately 2 weeks before planting, feed with a general fertiliser. In this bed you will plant the very heavy feeders such Potatoes, Beans, Peas, Celery, Sweet Corn, Marrows, Courgettes, Spinach, Outdoor Tomatoes, Leeks and Cucumbers.

Bed ‘D’

This bed is the anomaly in the system. Great thought will have to be given in the siting if this bed initially as it will contain ALL your permanent crops. These will include Rhubarb, Strawberries, Raspberries, all fruit bushes and all fruit trees. If starting your plot from scratch, it is wise to thoroughly prepare this bed before planting as it is not going to be rotated like the other 3 beds and is going to be there for a long time. It is for this reason that the system is only referred to as a 3 Bed System.

The Second and Third Years

In the following years the system moves the beds along in rotation as follows: –

In the fourth year the system is back to where you began.

Other Systems

The 3 bed system is not the only system of Rotation. Where space is available a 4 bed system can be used. This is basically the same as the 3 Bed system except the 4th bed is not used at all and left fallow. This is only a viable proposition if you have plenty of space and can afford to let the ground lie idle for a season.

Some gardeners have even more complex systems where they use 5 or 6 beds.

The Five Year system theory is:

First Year: Potatoes. They need lots of manure, which helps to feed the fertility for the rest of the cycle. Grow outdoor tomatoes here.

Second Year: Leeks, onions. Another group needing lots of manure or compost. Also include squashes (pumpkin, Courgettes, Marrows) in this area because they have similar needs.

Third Year: Legumes – Peas and beans. Also grow sweetcorn with this group again because they have similar needs. They also fix Nitrogen in the soil ready for the next crop.

Fourth Year: Brassicas – Cabbages, sprouts, cauliflowers, broccoli, turnips, Swedes, radishes. They get the benefit of the nitrogen fixed in the soil by the legumes.

Fifth Year: Roots – carrots, parsnip, Beetroot, celeriac.

Lettuce and salad crops are used as catch crops wherever there is a spare space.

The Six Bed System

This scheme is based on Lawrence D. Hills rotation scheme using their

Natural orders. This may sound complicated but in practice it is not.

1. ROOTS: Carrot, parsnip, Beetroot, chicory, spinach beet, chard, and celeriac

2. ALLIUMS: Onions, garlic, leeks, and shallots.

3. LEGUMES: Broad beans, runner beans, French beans, peas

4. BRASSICAS: Cabbage, cauliflower, sprouts, broccoli, Swede.

5. SOLANACEAE: Potatoes, tomatoes

6. CUCURBITEAE: Courgettes, Squashes, and (Sweetcorn)

Salad crops can be fitted in around the others as catch crops.

All this may sound very simple in theory but, in practice, it tends to be a bit more difficult, especially if space is at a premium.

The average gardener will probably need a lot more space for things like Potatoes and Sweet Corn than for Beetroot. It may be that you can only erect a frame for climbing beans in a particular area to avoid it shading other crops or it is not possible to move it each year.

These plans are only a guides really and do not have to be adhered to strictly. As long as soil is well prepared each year for the necessary crop there is no reason why you cannot grow beans in the same position for a few years on the run. The only vegetables to avoid growing in the same area each year are Brassicas. These are very susceptible to Clubroot Disease. This disease is spread by spores in the soil and if given chance to build up, can devastate a crop.

Survival Gardening Part 3

Digging Up The Soil – Churning up the soil enables the roots of your new plants to penetrate more easily. It can be very difficult for your plants to penetrate ground that is very hard or very dry. Not necessary if using a No-Dig Design. I prefer a No-Dig design for the following reason. To build up a raised garden bed by say 12 inches. Work out the amount and weight of soil required to move, to fill up a bed thats 4 metres x 2 metres x 30cm. Then compare that to the weight and cost of moving straw and organic fertilizer. Thats roughly 4 ton of soil. Then times that by how many garden beds required for a rotation system talked about later. 4 beds equals 16 ton of soil that needs to be moved.

Pick Your Seeds/what to Grow – This can be a tricky part. Each type of plant has different needs. Many grow better in some climates than in others. Some grow better in different areas of the country than others.

Beans climbing Sep-Jan 10-12

Beetroot Jun-Feb 10-12

Carrots Jun-Mar 12-16

Choko Jul-Sep 18-20

Cucumbers Aug-Jan 8-12

Herbs Jun-mar 12-20

Marrows Sep-Jan 8-14

Melons Sep-Dec 14-16

Onions Feb-Jul 24-32

Spring Onions Jul-Apr 8-12

Parsnips Jun-May 18-20

Peas Feb-Aug 14-16

Pumpkins Aug-Nov 14-16

Radishes Jul-May 6-8

Shallots Feb-Jun 12-14

Spinach Feb-Jun 8-10

Squashes Aug-Nov 12-14

Swedes Jan-Mar 12-16

Sweet Corn Aug-Jan 12-16

Sweet Potato Sep-Nov 18-20

Tomatoes Aug-Nov 12-20

Turnips Jan-Apr 10-12

Three Sisters Gardens

These incorporate Corn, Squash and Beans to provide the 8 amino acids that the body cannot produce itself and a complete protein from vegetable matter. These should be grown before anything else.

Plant Nutrient Deficiencies-Identifying Plant Problems

Not all plant problems are caused by insects or diseases. Sometimes an unhealthy plant is suffering from a nutrient deficiency or even too much of any one nutrient. Plant nutrient deficiencies often manifest as foliage discoloration or distortion. The following chart outlines some possible problems. Unfortunately many problems have similar symptoms and sometimes it is a combination of problems.

Be sure you eliminate the obvious before you kill your plants with kindness.

 Check first for signs of insects or disease.

 Foliage discoloration and stunted plants can easily be caused by soil that is too wet and drains poorly or soil that is too compacted for good root growth.

 Extreme cold or heat will slow plant growth and effect flowering and fruit set.

 Too much fertilizer can result in salt injury. Your plants may look scorched or they may wilt, even when the soil is wet.

Plants require a mix of nutrients to remain healthy. Nutrients that are needed in relatively large amounts are called the macronutrients. Plant macronutrients include: nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus, calcium, sulfur and magnesium. There are a handful of additional nutrients that are required for plant growth, but in much smaller quantities. These micro-nutrients include: boron, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum and zinc.

All of these nutrients are taken in through the roots. Water transfers the nutrients from the soil to the plant roots. So one requirement of sufficient plant nutrition is water. A second requirement is the appropriate soil pH for the plant being grown. Each plant prefers a specific pH range to be able to access the nutrients in the soil. Some plants are fussier than others, but if the soil pH is too acidic or alkaline, the plant will not be able to take in nutrients no matter how rich your soil may be.

Plant Nutrient Deficiency Symptoms


Calcium (Ca)

Symptoms: New leaves are distorted or hook shaped. The growing tip may die. Contributes to blossom end rot in tomatoes, tip burn of cabbage and brown/black heart of escarole & celery.

Sources: Any compound containing the word ‘calcium’. Also gypsum.

Notes: Not often a deficiency problem and too much will inhibit other nutrients.

Nitrogen (N)

Symptoms: Older leaves, generally at the bottom of the plant, will yellow. Remaining foliage is often light green. Stems may also yellow and may become spindly. Growth slows.

Sources: Any compound containing the words: ‘nitrate’, ‘ammonium’ or ‘urea’. Also manure.

Notes: Many forms of nitrogen are water soluble and wash away.

Magnesium (Mg)

Symptoms: Slow growth and leaves turn pale yellow, sometimes just on the outer edges. New growth may be yellow with dark spots.

Sources: Compounds containing the word ‘magnesium’, such as Epson Salts.

Phosphorus (P)

Symptoms: Small leaves that may take on a reddish-purple tint. Leaf tips can look burnt and older leaves become almost black. Reduced fruit or seed production.

Sources: Compounds containing the words ‘phosphate’ or ‘bone’. Also greensand.

Notes: Very dependent on pH range.

Potassium (K)

Symptoms: Older leaves may look scorched around the edges and/or wilted. Interveinal chlorosis (yellowing between the leaf veins) develops.

Sources: Compounds containing the words ‘potassium’ or ‘potash’.

Sulfur (S)

Symptoms: New growth turns pale yellow, older growth stays green. Stunts growth.

Sources: Compounds containing the word ‘sulfate’.

Notes: More prevalent in dry weather.


Boron (B)

Symptoms: Poor stem and root growth. Terminal (end) buds may die. Witches brooms sometimes form.

Sources: Compounds containing the words ‘borax’ or ‘borate’.

Copper (Cu)

Symptoms: Stunted growth. Leaves can become limp, curl, or drop. Seed stalks also become limp and bend over.

Sources: Compounds containing the words ‘copper’, ‘cupric’ or ‘cuprous’.

Manganese (Mn)

Symptoms: Growth slows. Younger leaves turn pale yellow, often starting between veins. May develop dark or dead spots. Leaves, shoots and fruit diminished in size. Failure to bloom.

Sources: Compounds containing the words ‘manganese’ or ‘manganous’

Molybdenum (Mo)

Symptoms: Older leaves yellow, remaining foliage turns light green. Leaves can become narrow and distorted.

Sources: Compounds containing the words ‘molybdate’ or ‘molybdic’.

Notes: Sometimes confused with nitrogen deficiency.

Zinc (Zn)

Symptoms: Yellowing between veins of new growth. Terminal (end) leaves may form a rosette.

Sources: Compounds containing the word ‘zinc’.

Notes: Can become limited in higher pH.

Managing Nitrogen

Nitrogen gas makes up about 75% of the gas in our atmosphere. It also happens to be one of the three most important nutrients for healthy plant growth.

The three most important plant nutrients are phosphorus for strong roots, potassium for fruit and flower development and nitrogen, which promotes lush growth – large leaves and thick stems. Nitrogen is essential for producing proteins and chlorophyll and it’s very important to give plants the right amount.

Nitrogen Deficiency
Too little nitrogen means plants get yellow leaves and stunted growth. In a lawn, the presence of clover is an indicator there’s too little nitrogen. The older leaves on Jerry’s Cinnamon bush are nice and green but the new leaves are yellow. This indicates an absence of chlorophyll, which is what plants use to manufacture the food which allows them to grow. Jerry says, “If I don’t address this problem the new leaves will become stunted.”

Correcting Nitrogen Deficiency
The organic gardeners’ holy trinity:

• Animal based manures – including things like chicken manure and blood and bone.

• Plant based additives – such as lawn clippings which, Jerry says, “Are the most abundant source of nitrogen in any garden.” Another great plant based additive is seaweed which contains small percentages of many nutrients necessary for growth.

• Garden compost – a gardener’s way of recycling all the nutrients in the garden.
Jerry says that he “could use chemical fertilisers, such as sulphate of ammonia, which is a very rich source of nitrogen or a mixed fertiliser, but I choose not to use artificial forms of fertiliser. They’re so rich they can burn earthworms.” Also, chemical fertilisers can add lots of nitrogen quickly which may be lost into the soil, water and atmosphere. Organic sources of nitrogen act gently and release the nutrients slowly.


To fix Cinnamon bush, mulch it with compost and feed it with seaweed, at the recommended rate.

• Mulching with compost adds nitrogen and other minerals whilst improving the soil. Jerry applies a four centimeter deep layer and prevents the compost from touching the base of plants.

• Foliage feeding with seaweed is a quick fix because plants take up the nourishment directly through their leaves. “In about a month this plant should be restored to good health with large, deep green leaves.”

Nitrogen problem with his sweetcorn – but this time there’s a surplus.

Nitrogen Surplus
It’s quite common to have a nitrogen surplus in the garden. Having a lot of old poultry manure which was in big lumps, work it all in when feeding the sweetcorn. “Sweetcorn, bananas and citrus are really hungry crops and you’ve got to add extra nitrogen but I added too much to the sweetcorn and I’ve got rank growth.” That means the stems are long, thin and weak, and need to be staked and tied for stability.

Another negative in adding too much nitrogen is that pests like aphids, caterpillars and grasshoppers can smell it and are attracted by it.

Correcting Nitrogen Surplus
There’s nothing you can do when you add too much fertiliser. “You’ve just got to allow the plants to take up what they can. A little bit of nitrogen is good, too much is bad and you can never take nitrogen away when you’ve added too much.”

Nitrogen Basics
Nitrogen application is a juggling act. Key tips for striking the right balance include:

• Never apply nitrogen when plants are dormant because they won’t use it.

• Apply it little and often, so they use it all and none of it goes into waterways or up into the atmosphere.

• Make sure you apply it when the soil is moist. If you use seaweed fertilizer you can apply it as a foliage feed or water it in so that plants derive an immediate benefit from nitrogen.

• The result is a lush garden, full of strong, robust plants and very few pests and diseases.

Survival Gardening Part 2

Advantages of a Raised Bed Garden

Aside from avoiding the issue of gardening in poor soil, raised bed gardens offer several advantages:

 Raised beds warm more quickly in spring, allowing you to work the soil and plant earlier.

 Raised beds drain better.

 The soil in raised beds doesn’t get compacted, because they are constructed with accessibility in mind.

 It’s easy to tailor the soil for your raised bed to the plants you plan to grow there.

 After the initial construction process, raised beds require less maintenance than conventional

 Reduce frost damage in cold climates

No Dig Gardens

At the risk of being obvious – a no-dig garden is one you don’t have to dig. It sits above the ground and doesn’t have soil. But it contains plenty of other good stuff – such as layers of organic material – which form the perfect growing environment for vegtables and herbs as they break down.

Esther Deans pioneered the no-dig-gardening concept in Sydney in the 70s because her heavy clay soil was terrible for growing vegetables. Since then Esther’s idea has become popular with new gardeners, old folk who have a hard time bending over, and with the “lazies” amongst us.

It also makes perfect sense for a garden like the one we are filming in Perth, which has gutless, water repellent sandy soil and lawn that the tenants don’t want.

No-dig gardens are easy to make.
• Pick the spot – look for somewhere that gets plenty of sunlight and that’s flat. You can construct it over lawn, existing garden beds, or even concrete.
• The plan for the one we are making is round with a keyhole access path through the middle and a perimeter path around the outside to make picking vegies and herbs easy. But you can make any style you want.
• For the bedding you will need: straw, compost, blood and bon and sawdust or mulch for the paths.

A no-dig garden consists of eight 10cm layers – apart from compost and manure which should be 5cm. Remember to water each layer thoroughly as you go.

The layers:
• First layer is wood chips, followed by a dressing of blood and bone.
• Next, a layer of green weeds or grass clippings with no seeds or runners and apply lime.
• Number three is dry deciduous leaves or straw, followed by more blood and bone.
• The fourth layer is sheep manure, but you could use cow. Lay it on 5cm thick followed by some lime.
• Layer five is lucerne and blood and bone.
• Layer six is more manure – laid 5cm thick and lime.
• Layer seven – more lucerne and blood and bone.
• And layer number eight is compost –just like icing on the cake.

After making these layers the no-dig garden bed should be sitting about 60cm above ground. But it will settle to half this size over a week or two. It’s a good idea to wait for this to happen because the decomposing materials are better to plant into.

But if you’re itching to plant, use potting mix to get seeds and seedlings started. Just create little planting pockets, fill these with potting mix and sprinkle with a little blood and bone and rock minerals, and plant and water immediately. Most vegetables and herbs can be grown in no-dig gardens. Just look for what’s in season at your local nursery. But you will need to occasionally keep the bed topped up with compost, lucerne and manure just to ensure it stays at about 30 to 40 cm high. Try a drip line for watering – it works well. Just wrap it around in loops about 30cm apart. Alternatively hand water first thing in the morning – either way, no-dig beds have excellent moisture retention.

Improve The Soil – It is almost a certainty that you soil will need a boost. Trying to grow a garden without improving the soil is a difficult proposition at best.

Add organic matter to your soil. Putting in layers of compost, decayed leaves, grass clippings, or old manure on your garden should give your soil the boost it needs.

Amending Your Garden Soil – Making Good Soil out of Bad. First it should be pointed out that dirt is always called soil in gardening. Soil is arguably the most important component in a successful garden, so not calling it dirt is a show of respect. However, it is still dirt when it gets on your clothes.

What is Good Garden Soil?

Soil is generally evaluated on fertility and texture. Fertility is a combination of essential nutrients and a pH that makes these nutrients available to the plants. Texture refers to the size of the soil particles and their cohesiveness.

The three primary nutrients used by plants are nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium.

Nitrogen is largely responsible for healthy leaf and stem growth. In the soil, nitrogen is made available to plants by nitrogen fixing bacteria which convert nitrogen into nitrates, a form plants can use. Nitrogen does not remain in the soil for long. It gets used up by your plants and by decaying matter in the soil. It is also water soluble and can wash out of the soil rather quickly. Even so, an excess of nitrogen will cause a lot of foliage growth at the expense of flowers and fruit.

Phosphorus is very important for root growth. Flowering bulbs and root crops can always use some phosphorous. That’s why bone meal is often recommended for fall bulb planting. It also is crucial for producing flowers and you will sometimes see fertilizers with a high phosphorus content advertised as flower boosters.

Potassium is needed for overall plant health. It keeps the plants growing and aids their immune systems. Like nitrogen, potassium is also water soluble and needs to be replenished from time to time.

Besides the three primary nutrients, there are several trace elements that are necessary for good plant health like: calcium, magnesium, zinc, molybdenum, etc.

A lot is made of soil pH. In laymen terms, pH is a measure of the soil acidity or alkalinity. The scale goes from 1.0 to 14.0, with 7.0 being neutral. The lower the numbers go from 7.0, the more acidic the soil. The higher they go above 7.0, the more alkaline. The reason soil pH matters is that nutrients in the soil are only available to plants if the soil pH is within a certain range. Many plants like a pH in the low acid to neutral range (6.2 – 6.8), but that’s not true for all plants. Rhododendrons, heathers and blueberries favor very acid soils and lilacs and clematis will thrive in alkaline or even chalky soil. The only sure fire way to know where your soil’s pH falls is to have it tested. Keep in mind that it takes time to alter soil pH and your soil will tend to revert to its old pH over time, necessitating repeated treatment.


pH is a measure of the acidity and alkalinity of the soil using a scale from 1 to 14; where 7 is neutral, less than 7 is acid and greater than 7 is alkaline. Fresh, clean water is neutral with a pH of 7, lemon juice is very acid with a pH of 2.6 and baking soda is very alkaline with a pH of 8.5. It is important to remember that pH is a logarithmic scale, so the difference between a pH of 7 and a pH of 6 is ten times the acidity, between 7 and 5 is a 100 times the acidity and between 7 and 4 is a 1000 times the acidity so it is obvious that this will have a major impact on the ability of plants to grow. pH is used as an indicator of the availability of other nutrients in the soil but only hydrogen ions are actually measured.

Acid soils with a pH of less than 6 commonly have deficiencies in:

 Calcium

 Magnesium

 Phosphorus

 Potassium

 Molybdenum

Acid soils with a pH of less than 4 commonly have toxic amounts of:

 Aluminium

 Manganese

alkaline soils with a pH of more than 7 the following nutrients may be unavailable:

 Iron

 Manganese

 Zinc

 Copper

 Boron

The addition of agricultural lime (calcium carbonate) or dolomite (magnesium carbonate & calcium carbonate) will increase pH (decrease acidity) of the soil. Agricultural lime is cheaper to buy than dolomite. Dolomite is only a good idea if your soil is deficient in magnesium. Many of the acid soils in SE QLD are already too high in magnesium, adding more is a waste of money and can cause the ratio of calcium to magnesium to be out of balance.

Sulfates of iron and ammonium, elemental sulfur and organic matter are used to lower the pH (increase acidity) of the soil.

Gypsum (calcium sulphate) does not alter the pH of the soil but can improve aeration and reduce compaction in a clay soil.

The texture of the soil eg clay or sand and the amount of organic matter present will affect the quantity of material needed to alter the pH. Clay soils need a much greater amount of lime to shift the pH than sandy soils.

The addition of organic matter is always beneficial to the soil whether added as manure, compost or by green manuring. Organic matter will generally ‘buffer’ plants against the impact of acidity so that a soil with a lower pH range will still successfully grow plants.

Plants vary in their desired pH range and this is to with the pH of the soil type they evolved in. For example lavenders are native to the limestone soils of the Mediterranean and so prefer an alkaline soil.

Soil texture is a little trickier to amend than soil fertility. Texture refers to the size of the soil particles. Sandy soils have very large particles. Water, air and plant roots can move freely in sandy soils, sometimes too much so. At the other end of the spectrum is clay. Clay particles are so small they pack together tightly and leave little room for water, air or roots. If you’ve ever tried to garden in baked clay you know it also leaves little room for a shovel blade.

An easy test for soil texture is to make a ball of damp garden soil. If it breaks apart when you tap it, it’s sandy. If you can press it between your thumb and finger and make a ribbon, it’s clay.

Most soils are somewhere in-between. What you are ideally going for is called a sandy loam. It should be light and allow for air and water movement, but have some tilth, a kind of fine bread crumb like texture, which usually occurs when there is plenty of organic matter in the soil.

Don’t try to change your soil texture by adding sand to clay or vice versa. That is a recipe for cement. Some amendment recommendations for clay do include a portion of very fine sand, but there are better ways to change your soil texture.

Organic Matter
Like soil pH, organic matter gets a great deal of press. Organic matter is dead plant or animal material. There is always some organic matter in your soil, but usually not enough for a plant’s needs. Decaying organic matter, or humus, will help give your soil tilth. It helps sandy soil by retaining water that would otherwise wash away and it corrects clay soil by making it looser, so that air, water and roots can penetrate. In all soils, it encourages beneficial microbial activity and it provides some nutritional benefits. Humus is natures way of feeding the circle of life. Animal Manures Basics

This is the best information I could find, on using animal manures. The more I looked into it the more it started to burn out my mind. Yourd think putting shit onto a garden would be easy. Afraid that’s a yes and no answer. No, in that the type of manure affects the PH levels, NPK levels and acidity which I never new, down to ecoli infections etc.

Basically Cow and Horse manure are usually the easiest to find just by driving around horse studs and farming properties. Its just sitting there by the front gates for a few dollars a bag. What I liked to do is place it into a 44 gal drum and apply water, then use the resulting water or tea as some refer to it and left over sludge after its broken down as a liquid fertilizer. As a solid base fertilizer I prefer Aged Sheep manure, being closest to neutral PH as possible.

Cow manure… add to your soil if it is too alkaline (above 8)

Chook manure, add to your soil if it is too acid (below 6)

Sheep or goat manure is close to pH neutral add if your soil pH is close to were you want it

Animal manure road test

Manure is the solid waste from animals that feed on vegetable matter. Containing organic chemicals from the gut of the animal, it makes great compost. It also contains micro-organisms which are essential in helping plants break down and digest nutrients. The manure of animals which are not fed on hormones and other chemicals can be used safely – although you still need to wear gloves while handling it.

The benefits from using manure on your garden include adding water-holding capacity to sandy soils and opening up clays. Manures are mild sources of nutrients. Naturally pelleted manure such as that of rabbits and sheep resists breakdown and makes good mulch. Manures are good accelerators to aid in the breakdown of composting plant material. Use between 10-20% manure by volume. Once aged, manures encourage earthworm activity in soil. Fertilizer can be made from fresh manure added to a barrel of water and left to brew for four weeks. Break down the liquid to the strength of weak tea and use as a general-purpose fertilizer all around the garden.
On the downside, manures tend to be bulky in comparison to manufactured fertilizers, they can contain weed seeds and salts and they can burn plants, particularly if they are applied fresh in direct contact with roots. It’s always best to age fresh manure. Just pile it high and leave it to weather for 3-6 months, covering it to keep flies out.

N-P-K (Nitrogen/Phosphorous/Potassium) ratios are low in all manure. Even poultry manure, one of the richest, only has 1/8th the nitrogen content of blood and bone. Bird manures are a particularly good source of phosphate for organic gardeners who do not want to use chemical fertilizers. Caged birds like canaries and cockies produce a manure not unlike chicken manure which tends to contain uneaten seeds. This can lead to a weed infestation if the manure isn’t properly aged, as can free-range chicken manure. Pelleted poultry manures have been composted and sterilized so they are safe to use immediately.

Cow manure is relatively poor in nutrients but it will slightly improve soil fertility. Sheep and rabbit manure make superb mulch and are so mild-acting that they can be used without ageing. With nitrogen contents running at less than 1% they are unlikely to damage even fresh seedlings.
Most pig manure comes from high-tech farms. It’s been separated out in centrifuges so the resulting manure is highly concentrated and needs ageing before use. Horse manure tends to be very fibrous from the straw that’s found in stables, which means that once it’s been aged it makes an ideal mulch. Horse manure works well in vegetable gardens.
If you’re treating domestic dogs against worms, it’s important that you avoid feeding their droppings to a worm farm because it will bump those worms off as well. Instead, add them to the manure ageing pile or the vat of water.

Worm manure or castings are very easy to use and there’s no unpleasant smell. Just add them directly to the garden – there’s no need to age them. Bury them under the surface so that they don’t dry out.

Manure Nutrients

When it comes to adding body to the soil there’s nothing like natural manure as a soil conditioner. It’s a preferred option because, as the manure breaks down, it adds valuable humus to the soil and this helps to store nutrients and water.

Whether it’s cattle in the paddock or free-range chooks, any critter with a diet of grass or vegetable scraps, will produce manure that reflects the nutrient balance that plants need from the soil.

Manures are available in many guises. Ideally you can collect it yourself but there are also packaged products from the nursery and manure which can be bought from the farm gate. All are fantastic for building up organic matter in the soil. But it’s critical to realize that there can be great variation in nutrient content between different manures.

The three most commonly available manures for your garden are:
• Cow manure, which tends to have a low nutrient analysis because, like sheep manure, it comes from animals grazing on grass. This makes it great as a general purpose soil conditioner; and great for phosphorous-sensitive native plants when it’s well rotted.
• Horse manure tends to provide a step up in nutrient levels because these animals are often fed supplements. This makes it a great tonic for vegetable and flowerbeds.
• Chook manure usually has the highest nutrient content because of the intensive nature of the diet. Laying hens are often fed calcium supplements, to strengthen the eggshells, and that makes their manure particularly good as a clay-breaker. Remember that farm gate chook manure is often mixed with bedding materials, such as sawdust, which greatly dilutes nutrient levels. Chook manure always has a higher nitrogen level, making it great for fertilizing lawns and for use in the vegie garden. But it also has a higher phosphorous level, so using it long term on native plants, such as banksias, grevilleas and waratahs, can kill them.

Can you use dog poo or kitty litter in the garden? Unfortunately it’s not a good idea – particularly in the vegetable garden – because their droppings often contain pathogens harmful to humans.

If you’re lucky enough to have a source of fresh manure then you need to be careful because it can have salt levels high enough to burn plants. A tip to make it more manageable is to put the manure into a plant pot, run some water through it and this will dilute the nutrient levels. (It also allows any weed seeds in the manure to germinate, and they will quickly die before you’re ready to use it.) And what’s left is beautiful liquid manure. Dilute it so it looks like weak tea and you’ve got a wonderful tonic for your flower or vegetable garden.

When using manure, dig it into the garden as soon as possible. If it’s left sitting on the surface, much of the nitrogen, particularly from chicken manure, can be lost as ammonia gas. Just fork it into the topsoil, and the nitrogen will be available, in the short term, for any leafy vegetables, but the beautiful organic matter will break down and build up the nutrient and water-holding capacity in the soil. It’s good stuff.

Survival Gardening Part 1

In even the Humblest Garden Grows, far more than Herbs and Flowers.

Kind Thoughts, Contentment, Peace of Mind and Joy for Weary Hours.

Adapted from “A Poor Mans Garden”

by Mary Howett.

In times of economic uncertainty and rising food prices, its always a good idea to have a vegetable garden to provide extra food for you and your family. These are notes Ive taken over the years on starting a survival garden.

Evaluate Your Land – You will need to evaluate the land that you are going to use. Is it big enough? Does it get enough sun? Will you need to put up a fence to keep wildlife away?

Learning as much as you can about your soil will help you decide what needs to be done to make it ideal for the plants you want to grow. If you can learn about your soil’s texture, composition, drainage, acidity, and mineral density, you will avoid, up front, the disappointing results that can occur when your soil is unsuitable for growing in.

Testing your soil

You can test the texture of your soil easily by checking it in wet and dry conditions. If the soil is hard when dry and sticky when wet, it is likely to be clay. If it is light, easily drained and easy to dig, it is probably sand or loamy sand. For a more precise test, take a small amount of soil in your hand and wet it. Knead it into a smooth paste and then roll it about between your hands to form a ball. The following results will reveal the soil texture:

 Sticky and gritty – loam, the perfect soil

 Easily rolls into a ball, but feels rough – clay loam

 Easily rolls into a ball, shiny when rubbed, but still gritty – sandy clay

 Easily rolls into a ball and becomes shiny but not gritty – clay

 Doesn’t roll into a ball well, and feels gritty – sand

 Easily rolls into a ball but it falls apart easily – loamy sand

 Feels slippery and silky – silty loam

Vegetables for Acid and Neutral Soils

 Beans – all types – Brussels Sprouts, Cucumbers, Marrows, Courgettes, Parsley, Parsnips, Peas, Radish, Swede, Sweet Corn, Tomatoes and Turnips.

Vegetables for Alkaline Soils

 Asparagus, Beetroot, Carrots, Cauliflowers, Celery, Leeks, Lettuce, Onions and Spinach.

Vegetables for the more Acid Soil

Potatoes, Rhubarb.

Soil Test #1: The Squeeze Test

One of the most basic characteristics of soil is its composition. In general, soils are classified as clay soils, sandy soils, or loamy soils. Clay is nutrient rich, but slow draining. Sand is quick draining, but has trouble retaining nutrients and moisture. Loam is generally considered to be ideal soil because it retains moisture and nutrients but doesn’t stay soggy.

To determine your soil type, take a handful of moist (but not wet) soil from your garden, and give it a firm squeeze. Then, open your hand. One of three things will happen:

It will hold its shape, and when you give it a light poke, it crumbles. Lucky you—this means you have luxurious loam!

It will hold its shape, and, when poked, sits stubbornly in your hand. This means you have clay soil.

It will fall apart as soon as you open your hand. This means you have sandy soil.

Now that you know what type of soil you have, you can work on improving it.

Soil Test #2: The Percolation Test

It is also important to determine whether you have drainage problems or not. Some plants, such as certain culinary herbs, will eventually die if their roots stay too wet. To test your soil’s drainage:

Dig a hole about six inches wide and one foot deep.

Fill the hole with water and let it drain completely.

Fill it with water again.

Keep track of how long it takes for the water to drain.

If the water takes more than four hours to drain, you have poor drainage.

Soil Test #3: The Worm Test

Worms are great indicators of the overall health of your soil, especially in terms of biological activity. If you have earthworms, chances are that you also have all of the beneficial microbes and bacteria that make for healthy soil and strong plants. To do the worm test:

Be sure the soil has warmed to at least 55 degrees, and that it is at least somewhat moist, but not soaking wet.

Dig a hole one foot across and one foot deep. Place the soil on a tarp or piece of cardboard.

Sift through the soil with your hands as you place it back into the hole, counting the earthworms as you go.

If you find at least ten worms, your soil is in pretty good shape. Less than that indicates that there may not be enough organic matter in your soil to support a healthy worm population, or that your soil is too acidic or alkaline.

Soil Test #4: Ph Test

The Ph (acidity level) of your soil has a large part to do with how well your plants grow. Ph is tested on a scale of zero to fourteen, with zero being very acidic and fourteen being very alkaline. Most plants grow best in soil with a fairly neutral Ph, between six and seven. When the Ph level is lower than five or higher than eight, plants just won’t grow as well as they should.

Every home and garden center carries Ph test kits. These kits are fairly accurate, but you must make sure you follow the testing instructions precisely. Once you know whether your soil Ph is a problem or not, you can begin working to correct the problem.

If you find that you’ve done all of these tests, and amended the soil as needed to correct the issues, and your plants are still struggling along, the next step is to contact your local cooperative extension service. They will tell you how to go about collecting a soil sample and sending it into their lab for analysis. They will return a report that will alert you to any mineral deficiencies in your soil, as well as steps to correct the issues.

These tests are simple, inexpensive ways to ensure that your garden has the best foundation possible.

New Gooley

The new Tristan Gooley book arrived today. No books are better on the market for learning Natural Navigation. Been looking forward to this one on Weather.

Check out Tristans website for his Beginners Guide to Natural Navigation course

Perennial Crops

Part three on what to grow for Preppers

Annuals, Biennials and Perennials. Annuals are planted as seeds, emerge in the spring and die back in fall or winter. Biennials become established in the first year, then they produce seed and die in the second year. Perennials live for more than 2 years and produce seed most every year.

Reasons to Grow Perennials;

They require less work – once perennials get growing, all you have to do is keep the “weeds” back, perform some basic regular pruning and enjoy the crop when harvest time rolls around.

To increase your food production – perennials are often some of the first foods to emerge in the spring (ramps, chives, rhubarb and sorrel come to mind) and they are also some of the last harvested foods of the season (pears and apples).

Deeper roots = less watering – since perennials stay put in the ground, they are able to extend their roots deeper into the soil. If you live in an area that experiences drought, perennials may be the key to your gardening success.

Soil improvers – when you stop disturbing the soil, such as in no-dig gardening, you will improve the health of your soil every season.

Nutrient gatherers – the deeper roots of perennials will help to bring essential nutrients closer to the surface of the soil. This, in turn, favors the germination of annuals and biennials.

Rhubarb – Rheum rhabarbarum

Sorrel – Rumex acetosa

Chives – Allium schoenoprasum

Asparagus – Asparagus officinalis

Jerusalem artichoke – Helianthus tuberosus

Globe artichoke – Cynara scolymus

Horseradish – Armoracia rusticana

Watercress – Nasturtium officinale

Garlic (typically grown as an annual) – Allium sativum

Kale (typically grown as an annual) – Brassica oleracea var. sabellica

Bunching onions – Egyptian onions – Allium proliferum

Good King Henry – Chenopodium bonus-henricus

Lovage – Levisticum officinale

Rampsons – Allium ursinum

Ostrich fern – Matteuccia struthiopteris

Radicchio (typically grown as an annual) – Cichorium intybus

Three cornered leek – Allium triquetrum

Nasturtium -Nasturtium officinale

Groundnut Apios Americana

Scarlet Runner Beans -Phaseolus coccineus

Sea Kale – Crambe maritime


Fastest Growing Fruit and Nut Species for Preppers

Second part in the series of what to grow. Typically, fruit trees take about 7 to 10 years to bear fruits.

The following species take less than six years to fruit depending on the variety..Many fruiting within two years (See links below)

Apple , Avocado , Moringa, Guava, Plum , Lemon, Passion fruit , Raspberrys , Blue berry, Mulberry trees, Peach , Strawberrys, Cherrys , Mandarin , Papyaya , Fig , Custard Apple , Jujube, Banana / Plaintain, Lime, Elderberry, Chestnuts, Goose berry , Coji berry, Black Currant, Loquat, Olive, Bilberrys, Sweet Carob, Apricot, Nectrine, Paw Paw, Pear, Persimmon, Pomegranate, Hazel nuts.

What fruits can you grow in your climate?

Cool (choose low or high chill varieties): Apple, pear, peach, nectarine, plum,

apricot, fig, mulberry, raspberry, blackberry, grape, olive and citrus.

Temperate (choose low-chill varieties): Apple, peach, nectarine, pear, plum,

blueberry, kiwi fruit, medlar, date, nashi, apricot, olive and citrus

Sub-Tropical (usually grow well in coastal

conditions from Mackay to Sydney): Avocado, passionfruit, guava, tamarillo,

loquat, jaboticaba, walnut, babaco, black sapote and custard apple.

Tropical (protected from cold winds with warm, humid conditions):

Papaya, pawpaw, rambutan, mango, pineapple, gooseberry, jackfruit, carambola

and longan

Arid (dry in summer): Carob, feijoa, jujube, olive, pomegranate, fig, pistachio, almond, grape, quince and citrus.


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